There are many taxonomic classification systems used for wheat species, which causes confusion and controversy between researchers 1, 14. Although graingenes does not endorse any particular taxonomic treatment, we are very interested in the development of synonymy tables to help debabelize the various existing classifications. The inflorescences are composed of varying numbers of minute flowers, ranging from 20 to 100. Apr 03, 2020 wheat is an herbaceous annual plant up to 1. Cheyenne was the leading wheat variety produced that year, accounting for 34. A systematic group of cultivated plants that is clearly distinct, uniform, and. Wheat genetics resource center kansas wheat innovation center. The greatest portion of the wheat flour produced is used for bread making.
Water movement into dormant and nondormant wheat triticum aestivum l. The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the fertile crescent around 9600 bce. Translation project from wheat information service, vol. Classification for kingdom plantae down to species triticum aestivum l. Discussion the approved nomenclature for root classes assumes that plant axes have a basic structure made up of roots, hypocotyl and shoots. Pdf origin and taxonomy of wheat in the light of recent. In the development of taxonomic thought for both culti. About 95% of wheat produced worldwide is common wheat. Primary roots are usually temporary in wheat, unless the other roots fail to develop because of poor conditions. Barley germplasm center, okayama university, japan.
This diversity has led to much confusion in the naming of wheats. Wheat plant consists of two sets of roots that is seminal or seedling roots and clonal roots. Common wheat triticum aestivum, also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. Jump forward 65 years and nebraska still plants hard red winter as a majority of the wheat crop, though our annual acres have decreased to 920,000. The stems are erect and present structure of cane, that is they are hollow inside except at the nodes. In this article we will discuss about origin and cultivation of wheat. The nothogenus category in cultivated plant taxonomy cultonomy f. Serology is defined as that portion of biology, which is concerned with the nature and interactions of antigenic material and antibodies. Wheat journal of experimental botany oxford academic. Although as many as 18 species of wheat have been describe and recognised by percival 1921 only a few are of importance in agriculture. Wheat belongs to the genus triticum, for which there are 10 species, six which are cultivated and four which are not. Schematic representation of the evolutionary history of wheat species triticum and aegilops.
Wheat streak mosaic virus infects both winter and spring wheat triticum aestivum l. What are the six stages of the life cycle of a wheat plant. Introduction to wheat a different species of wheat wheat triticum spp. Depending on environmental conditions wet, dry, cool, or hot weather, yield loss because of wheat streak mosaic virus infections can surpass 60% langham et al. Winter wheat is the predominant crop grown in kansas, with anywhere from 8 to 12 million acres sown every year and annual production often ranging between 280 and 460 million bushels. Economic importance and taxonomy of the wheat wheat triticum aestivum l. A wide diversity of topics, ranging from the fine structure of cells to the gross morphology of the shoot, will be discussed in this chapter, providing a brief summary of the large amount of accumulated knowledge that exists on the botany of wheat. Itis taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a. Wheat is widely cultivated as a cash crop because it produces a good yield per unit area, grows well in a temperate climate even with a moderately short growing season. Smith 1976 defined it as the study of the origins and.
Wheat is able to hybridize with some perennial relatives and produce occasional offspring sharma and gill 1983. In this article we will discuss about serotaxonomy. The wheat plant has long slender leaves and stems that are hollow in most varieties. Per capita consumption of wheat in the united states exceeds that of any other single food staple. Wheat triticum aestivum l is the most extensively grown cereal crop in the world, covering about 237 million hectares annually, accounting for a total of 420 million tonnes isitor et al. Wheat crop production agronomy kansas state university. The wheat plant 14 taxonomic characters 14 other characters 34 page classification of the genus trit icum 35 spelt.
The leaf collar on a barley plant will have two overlapping appendages that clasp the stem, called auricles ball et al. Classification of wheat triticum species agropedia. For instance, one area of controversy is in genus classification. Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern levant. Wheat grown in dry climates is generally hard type, having protein content of 1115 percent and strong gluten elastic protein. Organisms that are arranged into groups enable a large population to be categorized and understood.
Welcome to the kansas state university official winter wheat website. During the seedling stage the second leaves are just emerging and beginning to unroll, and there are as many as six seminal roots. It is the most important staple food of about two billion people 36% of the world population. The plant is made up of leaves surrounding a slender stalk that terminates in spikes, or ears, of grain at the top of wheat international starch institute.
The following is the classification on the basis of. Taxonomy of wheat wikimili, the best wikipedia reader. Identification is very different from classification, which is even more problematic there are several methods for identifying plants. The existence and use of competing wheat classifications and the use of different botanic names for a single species are causing confusion in the research community. The growth of stems is not apical but produced by stretching of the tissues above the nodes meristem. Crops are plants that provide food, feed, fiber, and fuel. Help pages, faqs, uniprotkb manual, documents, news archive and biocuration projects. This content is a short introduction to the wheat origin, evolution, production technology, and. Pdf origin and taxonomy of wheat in the light of recent research. Wheat buyers use these to decide which wheat to buy, as each class has special uses, and producers use them to decide which classes of wheat will be most profitable to cultivate. Wheat flour is one of the most nutritious plant foods available, offering an array of minerals and critical nutrients. About the classification report about the classification download. Genomes genetic grin taxonomy for plants traditional dorofeev et al. Systems used to automatically annotate proteins with high accuracy.
This section will also explain the specific vocabulary related to wheat that will be used on the other sections of this website. Prior to flowering, barley can be confused with other small grains. Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The wheat plant has long, slender leaves, stems that are hollow in most types of wheat plants, and heads that have many kinds of flowers, from 20 to 100. Wheat is a tall, annual plant with a height ranging from two to six feet in early varieties.
As many as 18 species of wheat have been described. The nothogenus category in cultivated plant taxonomy cultonomy. Barley is distinguished from wheat, rye, and oats by examining the leaf collar when it is pulled away from the stem. Click on names to expand them, and on p for plants profiles. Plant classification grouping plants by their similar characteristics. For its botanical study, wheat plant can be divided into two parts namely root system and shoot system. Not all of these forms are known to exist in the wild, but they can be maintained under cultivation. The recent interest in spelt and other ancient wheats including kamut, a tetraploid wheat of uncertain taxonomy, related to durum wheat as healthy alternatives to bread wheat abdelaal et al. Wheat is mainly composed of carbs but also has moderate amounts of protein. Options for employing a different classification of the genus triticum l. Wheat simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The origin and taxonomy of cultivated wheat have been. Only the main stem of a wheat plant has primary roots, which may be retained throughout the life of the plant. The many species of wheat together make up the genus triticum.
This stage occurs after germination and begins when the first true leaves emerge from the soil, and ends when the first tiller emerges. This article explains how genetic and morphological characteristics of. Ploidy level influences some plant characteristics. Taxonomy wheat and related species have a basic chromosome number of 7 aase 1935.1448 399 855 1284 1234 324 1059 486 915 173 568 228 668 677 1084 175 984 741 1571 1500 837 114 1359 1132 1340 1574 1353 891 834 1341 918 368 73 707 642 1467